Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum)

Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum)
The Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum) is a small songbird species belonging to the New World warbler family, Parulidae. It is native to North America, with its breeding range extending across the boreal forests of Canada and the northeastern United States. During winter, the Palm Warbler migrates to the southeastern United States, the Caribbean, and Central America.

Physical Characteristics:
Palm Warblers are petite birds, measuring about 4.7 to 5.5 inches (12-14 cm) in length, with a wingspan of approximately 8.3 inches (21 cm). They weigh between 0.3 and 0.4 ounces (7-12 grams). The species showcases two distinct color morphs: yellow and western. The yellow morph has a bright yellow face, throat, and undertail coverts, while the western morph exhibits a paler, more olive-yellow coloration. Both morphs have streaked brown backs, a rufous or chestnut-colored cap, dark eyestripe, and broken white eye-rings. The wings have two faint white wing bars.

Palm Warblers are quite active and are often seen flicking their tails while foraging. They primarily feed on insects, spiders, and some seeds, searching for prey on the ground or in low vegetation. They are known for their distinctive habit of pumping their tails up and down while perched or on the ground.

Song and Calls:
The song of the Palm Warbler is a series of rapid, high-pitched trills, usually ending with a descending note. Their call is a sharp, high-pitched "tsik" or "tsip" sound.

Breeding and Nesting:
Palm Warblers build their nests on the ground, often in dense vegetation or near the base of a small tree. The female lays a clutch of 4 to 5 eggs, which are incubated by both parents for 10 to 12 days. After hatching, the chicks are primarily cared for by the female and fledge in around 12 days.

Conservation Status:
The Palm Warbler is classified as a species of Least Concern according to the IUCN Red List. However, habitat loss and fragmentation in both breeding and wintering grounds could pose threats to the species in the future. Conservation efforts are focused on preserving and restoring their habitats.